Case Study

Hardened Steel & Irons


Flank Wear Progression in Finishing of A2 Steel

Work Material: A2 Steel (62 HRc)

Cutting Tool: CNGA 432 (KY 4400 oxide ceramic)

Depth of Cut: 0.010 In.

Feed: 0.004 in./rev.

Cutting Speed: 550 SFM


Machining of Hardened Bearing Rings (100CrMo6)

Cutting speed was increased from 393 SFM, resulting in a productivity improvement of 84%. In addition, cost of insert was reduced from $18/cutting edge to $3/cutting edge, by changing from PCBN to Al2O3 ceramic.

MATERIAL / Customer Condition

Material: 100CrMo6 (60 HRc)
Operation: ID and OD machining
Feed: 0.010 in./rev.
Speed: 393 SFM (OD)
Insert: RNG 43 (WBN100) PCBN
Tool Life: 1 pass (7.7″ LOC)

LIN/Al2O3 Ceramic – An Unlikely Success

FLOOD/Al203 vs. LIN/AI203

Unlike flood cooling, LIN cooling does not induce fracture, chipping or cleavage of oxide ceramic tools.

LIN-cooling causes hardening and toughening of the bulk tool material, resulting in higher hardness and compressive/TRS.

Moisture reduces compressive/transverse rupture strengths in alumina ceramics and facilitates crack propagation.

LIN cooling causes reduction in thermal gradient at the tool surface due to the boundary film effect and “Liedenfrost” phenomenon.

With flood cooling, boiling happens only very close to the high temperature source and not over the entire rakeface. This induces thermal shock, leading to catastrophic failure.

Cryo-machining of 52100 Steel with PCBN Inserts

Machining of Chilled Iron Pump Liners (66 HRc)

Part: slurry Pump Liner
Material: Chilled Iron (66 HRc)
Operations: Facing, Turning
DOC: 0.125″
Cutting Speed: 475 SFM
Insert: RNG 45 (AI203)


ICEFLY replaced multiple manufacturing steps (soft turning, heat-treat, grinding).


Al2O3 ceramic inserts successfully handled severe runout and heat-treat scales. Previous attempts by the manufacturer using PCBN @ 250 SFM resulted in insert fracture halfway through the cut.


Better surface properties, including surface finish, hardness.

Cryo-machining of WC/Co-Ni Rolls with PCD Tools

Built-up Edge and PCD Tool Life

Interrupted Cuts with LIN/Ceramic

Tool Life in Mild Interruptions (Single 3/16″ Slot)

Tool Life in Multiple Interruptions

Tool Life in Severe Interruptions (Single 9/16″ Slot)

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