Case Studies: Hardened Steel & Irons

Flank Wear Progression in Finishing of A2 Steel

Flank Wear Progression

 

 

Machining of Hardened Bearing Rings (100CrMo6)

Machining of Hardened Bearing Rings (100CrMo6)

LIN/Al2O3 Ceramic --- An Unlikely Success

LIN/Al2O3 Ceramic, An Unlikely Success

FLOOD/Al203 vs. LIN/AI203

Unlike flood cooling, LIN cooling does not induce fracture, chipping or cleavage of oxide ceramic tools.

LIN-cooling causes hardening and toughening of the bulk tool material, resulting in higher hardness and compressive/TRS.

Moisture reduces compressive/transverse rupture strengths in alumina ceramics and facilitates crack propagation.

LIN cooling causes reduction in thermal gradient at the tool surface due to the boundary film effect and “Liedenfrost” phenomenon.

With flood cooling, boiling happens only very close to the high temperature source and not over the entire rakeface.  This induces thermal shock, leading to catastrophic failure.

Cryo-machining of 52100 Steel with PCBN Inserts

Cryo-machining of 52100 Steel with PCBN Inserts

 

Machining of Chilled Iron Pump Liners (66 HRc)

Machining of Chilled Iron Pump Liners

  • ICEFLY replaced multiple manufacturing steps (soft turning, heat-treat, grinding).
  • Al2O3 ceramic inserts successfully handled severe runout and heat-treat scales.  Previous attempts by the manufacturer using PCBN @ 250 SFM resulted in insert fracture halfway through the cut.
  • Better surface properties, including surface finish, hardness.

 

Cryo-machining of WC/Co-Ni Rolls with PCD Tools

Cryo-machining of WC/Co-Ni Rolls with PCD Tools

 

 

Built-up Edge and PCD Tool Life

Built-up edge and PCD tool life

 

Interrupted Cuts with LIN/Ceramic

Interrupted cuts with LIN/ceramic

Tool Life in Mild Interruptions (Single 3/16" Slot)

Tool life in mild interruptions (single 3/16" slot)

 

Tool Life in Severe Interruptions (Single 9/16" Slot)

Tool Life in Severe Interruptions

Tool Life in Multiple Interruptions

Tool Life in Multiple Interruptions, 1 Slot

Tool Life in Multiple Interruptions, 4 Slots

Tool Life in Multiple Interruptions, 8 Slots